T1 - Roads as barriers to animal movement in fragmented landscapes
If you have animals living under your shed or deck. You need a shed or deck barrier!
The suitability of any species to act as a host to a particular pathogen varies due to both host species– and pathogen-dependent factors, which define the species barriers. The species barriers separating nonhuman animal species from humans and thus of concern for zoonotic pathogens are the focus of this paper. However, the proposed conceptual framework is applicable to any host-pathogen system.
Zoonotic pathogens represent approximately 60% of all known pathogens able to infect humans . Their occurrence in humans relies on the human-animal interface, defined as the continuum of contacts between humans and animals, their environments, or their products. The human-animal interface has existed since the first footsteps of the human species and its hominin ancestors 6–7 million years ago, promoting the prehistoric emergence of now well-established human pathogens . These presumably include pathogens with roles in the origin of chronic diseases, such as human T-lymphotropic viruses and Helicobacter pylori, as well as pathogens causing major crowd diseases, such as the smallpox and measles viruses and Bordetella pertussis , . Since prehistory, the human-animal interface has continued to evolve and expand, ever allowing new pathogens to access the human host and cross species barriers .
Barriers to Animal Movement - Oregon Conservation Strategy
Climbing Animal Barrier | Nixalite
At a young age, his father taught him how to make underground barriers (known as a hardware cloth bury), to keep digging animals like badgers, skunks and coyotes out and a solid chicken house able to keep out mice and snakes. Little did he know that these experiences would assist others in the future or that he would someday invent a product to stop wildlife from digging into chicken enclosures (Dig Defence Animal Control).Chicken tractors (mobile chicken houses that get moved around on wheels) must be constructed in a very solid manner with small mesh and sturdy frame work in order to keep animals out. The only way to prevent skunks and other animals from digging under a tractor is to install a low voltage line around the bottom portion of the coop and powering it with solar or an extension cord. Installing dig proof underground barriers to a chicken tractor defeats the purpose of a mobile chicken house. Designing your chicken coop to be wildlife proof from the beginning is the most cost effective way to avoid problems, including egg and chicken loss. Of course it is always best to have a concrete floor in the chicken house to prevent skunks and other animals from digging under, but if this is not possible, you can prevent digging with the use of a hardware cloth bury or installing Dig Defense Animal Control Commercial Grade. These two underground barriers will pay for themselves overnight when a skunk or fox take advantage of that dirt bath your chickens made against the chicken coop wall and use it to dig in. The aim of this study was to provide a single site resource for investigators, clinicians, and others seeking preclinical, animal, and human investigational studies concerning the postsurgical, anti-adhesion barrier Seprafilm™ (Genzyme Corporation, Cambridge, MA). All published preclinical, animal, human extra-abdominal research as of July 2011 have been summarized and included in this document. Searches of Medline and EMBASE Drugs and Pharmaceuticals databases were conducted for original preclinical, animal, and human extra-abdominal studies involving Seprafilm. Preclinical, animal, and extra-abdominal human investigational studies are the study selection for this manuscript. Intraabdominal use is discussed in the accompanying manuscript. Data extraction includes systematic manuscript review. Summary of preclinical, animal, and extra-abdominal human investigational use of Seprafilm by surgical discipline were gathered for data synthesis. The clinical use of Seprafilm, which was approved by the FDA for intra-abdominal procedures, is supported by preclinical and animal studies relating to general surgical and obstetrical/gynecological applications. Findings from preclinical, animal, and human investigational studies at other sites throughout the body raises the potential for additional human clinical trials to assess efficacy and safety following surgical procedures at non-abdominal locations.